What exactly is an ARM?
Let's look at the basics of what an ARM processor does. They're found in everything from Redboard Turbo to the Raspberry Pi to the majority of smartphones, which is an array of capabilities.
An ARM can be described as a distinct business model. Arm Holdings does the design work for the cores and holds the patents/copyright/other legal things and then licenses the design out. The cores are then incorporated into microcontrollers, CPUs, SOCs (System on Chip), etc.
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A company may decide that it would like to develop cameras that use an ARM core. They could contract the core, improve the power efficiency, add silicone to the camera's sensor interface, and then build the entire camera on an integrated chip.
If you search around, you'll see several names conventions. The v7 architecture lists three profiles:
Cortex-A The profile of the application
Cortex-R the real-time profile
Cortex-M The Microcontroller profile
We'll examine Cortex-Ms. They are the Cortex M0/M0+ as well as M1 come part of the v6 architecture and are an alternative to the V7 profile. This means that we will look at how to program with the SamD21 with Our Redboard Turbo (and different boards) and use the SamD51 for the Thing Plus. It is worth noting that the SAMD21 has an ARM Cortex M0 and it is an ARM Cortex-M0. SAMD51 has an ARM Cortex M4F.
A bootloader is a tiny piece of software that examines the port for programming to determine whether new code is entering. If there is, it uses the code and places it in a specified place. If not, it is running the code in that particular area.